Economic freedoms are an important segment of total freedom of the individual. Understood as the possibility of obtaining material wealth, economic freedoms are significantly associated with the overall prosperity of society and the development of political and other freedoms essential for development of democratic systems. The paper analyzes economic freedoms in the context of Islamic countries, with an analysis of key trends and features in this area. Based on the two indexes for measuring economic freedoms, paper shows details on the state of economic freedoms in Islamic countries. Criterion for labeling the country as Islamic was the relative number of the Muslim population. Analysis takes into account the countries where Islam is single largest religion. These percentages vary from 47% of the Muslim population in Kazakhstan to 99.99% of Muslims in Mauritania and the Maldives. The paper states that the observed Islamic countries have certain problems regarding economic freedom, and that only a small number of Islamic countries are able to provide an adequate level of economic freedom for its citizens.